Elements of a Conveyor System

Elements of a Conveyor System

Conveyor systems are the type of mechanical systems that allows materials to transport from one place to another.

There are four main elements in a screw conveyor.

  1. Drive Unit
  2. Motor
  3. Auxiliary Equipment 
  4. Control Unit

Drive Unit

The drive unit controls the speed of the electrical machine by changing the current and the frequency. Because, in some cases, we need different operating speeds for some materials. And some processes require different speeds during the operation.

There are both fixed-speed drives and adjustable speed drives available. So, the motor can be either fixed speed or adjustable speed type depending on the application.

Fixed-speed drives

Fixed-speed drives maintain a fixed speed and are suitable for processes that don’t require a change in speed during the operation. However, when the machine is not running, simple sheave or sprocket changes can make some small speed changes. However, to make some large changes, it’s required to change the motor or speed reducer.

Note: To change the speed of a fixed-speed drive, the machine needs to be shut down.

Adjustable-speed drive

Adjustable-speed drives can change the speed of the motor, during operation. And the speed can be regulated manually or using an automatic system.


Usually, the drive unit costs 15%-30% percent of the total cost of building a conveyor system.


The motor of a conveyor system should fulfill the requirement of power needed. So, we can do the power calculation or we can assume a suitable motor. To assume a suitable motor, we usually check similar machines to get a rough idea.

Auxiliary equipment

Auxiliary equipment is the supporting mechanism of a conveyor system.

Control Unit

The Control unit is where the functions of the machine are controlled. And it can contain programmable controllers, computer systems, or just the on-off switch. Moreover, it’s helpful to maintain rated capacities and close tolerances which is important when the feed to the conveyor tends to be erratic.

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